Relevant Publications

Scroll down for four groups of papers: water focus; energy focus; land, and food focus; and general focus.

Water Focus

Zipper, S. C., Jaramillo, F., Wang‐Erlandsson, L., Cornell, S. E., Gleeson, T., Porkka, M., … & Gordon, L. (2020). Integrating the water planetary boundary with water management from local to global scales. Earth’s future, 8(2). doi:

Keskes, T., Zahar, H., Ghezal, A., & Bedoui, K. (2019). Impact of Solar Pumping Systems in Tunisia. The Nexus Regional Dialogue Programme. Retrieved from:

Sridharan, V., Broad, O., Shivakumar, A., Howells, M., Boehlert, B., Groves, D. G., … & Cervigni, R.  (2019). Resilience of the Eastern African electricity sector to climate driven changes in hydropower generation. Nature communications, 10(1), 1-9. doi:

Xie, H., Ringler, C., & You, L. (2019, December). Last Mile Energy Access for Productive Energy Use in Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa-What and Where is the Potential?. In AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts (Vol. 2019, pp. GC31O-1288). 

Dombrowsky, I., & Hensengerth, O. (2018). Governing the water-energy-food nexus related to hydropower on shared rivers—The role of regional organizations. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 6, 153. doi:

Mabhaudhi, T., Mpandeli, S., Nhamo, L., Chimonyo, V. G., Nhemachena, C., Senzanje, A., … & Modi, A. T. (2018). Prospects for improving irrigated agriculture in southern Africa: Linking water, energy and food. Water, 10(12), 1881. doi:

Yang, J., Yang, Y. E., Khan, H. F., Xie, H., Ringler, C., Ogilvie, A., … & Tharme, R. (2018). Quantifying the Sustainability of Water Availability for the Water‐Food‐Energy‐Ecosystem Nexus in the Niger River Basin. Earth’s future, 6(9), 1292-1310. doi:

Yang, Y. E., & Wi, S. (2018). Informing regional water-energy-food nexus with system analysis and interactive visualization–A case study in the Great Ruaha River of Tanzania. Agricultural Water Management, 196, 75-86. doi:

Antonelli, M., Laio, F., & Tamea, S. (2017). Water resources, food security and the role of virtual water trade in the MENA region. In Environmental change and human security in Africa and the Middle East (pp. 199-217). Springer, Cham. doi:

Brandoni, C., & Bošnjaković, B. (2017). HOMER analysis of the water and renewable energy nexus for water-stressed urban areas in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of cleaner production, 155, 105-118. doi:

Leemhuis, C., Thonfeld, F., Näschen, K., Steinbach, S., Muro, J., Strauch, A., … & Diekkrüger, B. (2017). Sustainability in the food-water-ecosystem nexus: The role of land use and land cover change for water resources and ecosystems in the Kilombero Wetland, Tanzania. Sustainability, 9(9), 1513. doi:

Conway, D., Van Garderen, E. A., Deryng, D., Dorling, S., Krueger, T., Landman, W., … & Dalin, C. (2015). Climate and southern Africa’s water–energy–food nexus. Nature Climate Change, 5(9), 837-846. doi:

Jobbins, G., Kalpakian, J., Chriyaa, A., Legrouri, A., & El Mzouri, E. H. (2015). To what end? Drip irrigation and the water–energy–food nexus in Morocco. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 31(3), 393-406. doi:

Nyatsanza, F. F., Graas, S., & van der Zaag, P. (2015). The impact of dynamic environmental flow releases on hydropower production in the Zambezi River Basin. JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 51(4), 1029-1042. doi:

Energy Focus

Lefore, N., Closas, A., & Schmitter, P. (2021). Solar for all: A framework to deliver inclusive and environmentally sustainable solar irrigation for smallholder agriculture. Energy Policy154, 112313. doi:

Tolessa, A., Zantsi, S., Louw, T. M., Greyling, J. C., & Goosen, N. J. (2020). Estimation of biomass feedstock availability for anaerobic digestion in smallholder farming systems in South Africa. Biomass and Bioenergy, 142, 105798. doi:

Aresti, M., Barclay, A., & Cherubini, P. (2019). Rethinking Access to Energy Business Models: Ways to Walk the Food-Energy-Nexus Talk in Sub-Saharan Africa. Res4Africa Foundation: Rome, Italy.

Martins, R. (2018). Nexusing charcoal in South Mozambique: a proposal to integrate the nexus charcoal-food-water analysis with a participatory analytical and systemic tool. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 6, 31. doi:

Hoffmann, H. K., Sander, K., Brüntrup, M., & Sieber, S. (2017). Applying the Water-Energy-Food Nexus to the Charcoal Value Chain. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 5, 84. doi:

Mekonnen, D., Bryan, E., Alemu, T., & Ringler, C. (2017). Food versus fuel: examining tradeoffs in the allocation of biomass energy sources to domestic and productive uses in Ethiopia. Agricultural Economics, 48(4), 425–435. doi:

Smith, J. U., Fischer, A., Hallett, P. D., Homans, H. Y., Smith, P., Abdul-Salam, Y., … & Phimister, E. (2015). Sustainable use of organic resources for bioenergy, food and water provision in rural Sub-Saharan Africa. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 50, 903-917. doi:

Thieme, T., & Kovacs, E. (2015). Services and slums: Rethinking infrastructures and provisioning across the nexus. The Nexus Network Think Piece Series, Paper, 4. Retrieved from

Food Focus

Adebiyi, J. A., Olabisi, L. S., Liu, L., & Jordan, D. (2021). Water–food–energy–climate nexus and technology productivity: a Nigerian case study of organic leafy vegetable production. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 23(4), 6128-6147. doi:

Cheo, A. E., & Tapiwa, K. A.  (2021). SDG2-Zero Hunger: Food Security, Improved Nutrition and Sustainable Agriculture.

Hameed, M. A. (2019). From Drought to Food-Energy-Water-Security Nexus: an Assessment of Food Insecurity in the Middle East. doi:

Simpson, G. B., Badenhorst, J., Jewitt, G. P., Berchner, M., & Davies, E. (2019). Competition for land: the water-energy-food nexus and coal mining in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 7, 86. doi:

Ozturk, I. (2017). The dynamic relationship between agricultural sustainability and food-energy-water poverty in a panel of selected Sub-Saharan African Countries. Energy Policy, 107, 289-299. doi:

Tian, H., Lu, C., Pan, S., Yang, J., Miao, R., Ren, W., . . . & Reilly, J. (2018). Optimizing resource use efficiencies in the food–energy–water nexus for sustainable agriculture: From conceptual model to decision support system. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 33, 104-113. doi:

General Focus

Al-Saidi, M., & Hussein, H. (2021). The water-energy-food nexus and COVID-19: Towards a systematization of impacts and responses. Science of The Total Environment, 779, 146529. doi:

Arenas, M., Femeena, P. V., & Brennan, R. A. (2021). The Water-Energy-Food Nexus Discovery Map: Linking Geographic Information Systems, Academic Collaboration, and Large-Scale Data Visualization. Sustainability, 13(9), 5220. doi:

Botai, J. O., Botai, C. M., Ncongwane, K. P., Mpandeli, S., Nhamo, L., Masinde, M., … & Mabhaudhi, T. (2021). A Review of the Water–Energy–Food Nexus Research in Africa. Sustainability, 13(4), 1762. doi:

Hogeboom, R. J., Borsje, B. W., Deribe, M. M., Van Der Meer, F. D., Mehvar, S., Meyer, M. A., … & Nelson, A. D. (2021). Resilience Meets the Water–Energy–Food Nexus: Mapping the Research Landscape. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 9, 38. doi:

Liphadzi, S., Mpandeli, S., Mabhaudhi, T., Naidoo, D., & Nhamo, L. (2021). The Evolution of the Water–Energy–Food Nexus as a Transformative Approach for Sustainable Development in South Africa. In The Water–Energy–Food Nexus (pp. 35-67). Springer, Singapore. doi:

Olabisi, L. S., Osuntade, O., Liverpool-Tasie, L. S. O., & Adebiyi, J. (2021). Participatory modelling for climate change adaptation: the poultry sector in Nigeria. Climate Policy, 21(5), 666-677. doi:

Muthee, K., Duguma, L., Nzyoka, J., & Minang, P. (2021). Ecosystem-Based Adaptation Practices as a Nature-Based Solution to Promote Water-Energy-Food Nexus Balance. Sustainability, 13, 1142. doi:

Naidoo, D., Nhamo, L., Mpandeli, S., Sobratee, N., Senzanje, A., Liphadzi, S., … & Mabhaudhi, T. (2021). Operationalizing the water-energy-food nexus through the theory of change. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews149, 111416. doi:

Durodola, O. S., Nabunya, V., Kironde, M. S., Nevo, C. M., & Bwambale, J. (2020). COVID‐19 and the water-energy-food nexus in Africa: Evidence from Nigeria, Uganda, and Tanzania. World Water Policy, 6(2), 176-201. doi:

Global Water, Energy and Food Nexus Principles: The Nexus Regional Dialogues Programme. (2020). Retrieved from:

Nexus Regional Dialogues Programme Phase II. (2020). Retrieved from:

Nhamo, L., Mabhaudhi, T., Mpandeli, S., Dickens, C., Nhemachena, C., Senzanje, A., … & Modi, A. T. (2020). An integrative analytical model for the water-energy-food nexus: South Africa case study. Environmental Science & Policy, 109, 15-24. doi:

Olawuyi, D. (2020). Sustainable development and the water-energy-food nexus: Legal challenges and emerging solutions. Environmental Science & Policy, 103, 1-9. doi:

Opejin, A. K., Aggarwal, R. M., White, D. D., Jones, J. L., Maciejewski, R., Mascaro, G., & Sarjoughian, H. S. (2020). A bibliometric analysis of food-energy-water nexus literature. Sustainability, 12(3), 1112. doi:

Winklmaier, J., Santos, S. A. B., & Trenkle, T. (2020). Economic Development of Rural Communities in Sub-Saharan Africa through Decentralized Energy-Water-Food Systems. Regional Development in Africa, 99.

Bielicki, J. M., Beetstra, M. A., Kast, J. B., Wang, Y., & Tang, S. (2019). Stakeholder perspectives on sustainability in the food-energy-water nexus. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 7, 7. doi:

Ghodsvali, M., Krishnamurthy, S., & de Vries, B. (2019). Review of transdisciplinary approaches to food-water-energy nexus: A guide towards sustainable development. Environmental Science & Policy, 101, 266-278. doi:

Hoff, H., Alrahaife, S. A., El Hajj, R., Lohr, K., Mengoub, F. E., Farajalla, N., … & Ulrich, A. (2019). A nexus approach for the MENA region—from concept to knowledge to action. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 7, 48. doi:

Mabhaudhi, T., Nhamo, L., Mpandeli, S., Nhemachena, C., Senzanje, A., Sobratee, N., … & Modi, A. T. (2019). The water–energy–food nexus as a tool to transform rural livelihoods and well-being in southern Africa. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(16), 2970. doi:

Nhamo, L., T. Mabhaudhi, S. Mpandeli, C. Nhemachena, A. Senzanje, D. Naidoo, S. Liphadzi & Modi A. T. (2019). Sustainability Indicators and Indices for the Water-Energy-Food Nexus for Performance Assessment: WEF Nexus in Practice – South Africa Case Study. Environmental Science and Policy, 109, pp. 15-24. doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2020.04.010

Res4Africa & Open Economics. (2019). Applying the Water-Energy-Food Nexus Approach to Catalyze Transformation Change in Africa. Res4Africa & Open Economics. Retrieved from

Simpson, G. B., & Jewitt, G. P. (2019). The development of the water-energy-food nexus as a framework for achieving resource security: A review. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 7, 8. doi:

Albrecht, T. R., Crootof, A., & Scott, C. A. (2018). The Water-Energy-Food Nexus: A systematic review of methods for nexus assessment. Environmental Research Letters, 13(4), 043002.

A Review of Nexus Literature and ongoing Nexus Initiatives for Policymakers. 2018.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; World Bank Group. (2018). Water Management in Fragile Systems: Building Resilience to Shocks and Protracted Crises in the Middle East and North Africa. Cairo: FAO and World Bank. © FAO and World Bank. License: CC BY-NC-ND 3.0 IGO.Nexus Country Profiles for the Niger basin. (2018)

Hoolohan, C., Larkin, A., McLachlan, C., Falconer, R., Soutar, I., Suckling, J., … & Yu, D. (2018). Engaging stakeholders in research to address water–energy–food (WEF) nexus challenges. Sustainability Science, 13(5), 1415-1426. doi:

Mpandeli, S., Naidoo, D., Mabhaudhi, T., Nhemachena, C., Nhamo, L., Liphadzi, S., … & Modi, A. T. (2018). Climate change adaptation through the water-energy-food nexus in southern Africa. International journal of environmental research and public health, 15(10), 2306. doi:

Nhamo, L., Ndlela, B., Nhemachena, C., Mabhaudhi, T., Mpandeli, S., & Matchaya, G. (2018). The water-energy-food nexus: Climate risks and opportunities in southern Africa. Water, 10(5), 567. doi:

Olabisi, L. S., Liverpool-Tasie, S., Rivers, L., Ligmann-Zielinska, A., Du, J., Denny, R., … & Sidibé, A. (2018). Using participatory modeling processes to identify sources of climate risk in West Africa. Environment Systems and Decisions, 38(1), 23-32. doi:

Pardoe, J., Conway, D., Namaganda, E., Vincent, K., Dougill, A. J., & Kashaigili, J. J. (2018). Climate change and the water–energy–food nexus: insights from policy and practice in Tanzania. Climate Policy, 18(7), 863-877. doi:

Scott, C. A., Albrecht, T. R., De Grenade, R., Zuniga-Teran, A., Varady, R. G., & Thapa, B. (2018). Water security and the pursuit of food, energy, and earth systems resilience. Water International, 43(8), 1055-1074. doi:

Stein, C., Pahl-Wostl, C., & Barron, J. (2018). Towards a relational understanding of the water-energy-food nexus: an analysis of embeddedness and governance in the Upper Blue Nile region of Ethiopia. Environmental Science & Policy, 90, 173-182. doi:

Sušnik, J., Chew, C., Domingo, X., Mereu, S., Trabucco, A., Evans, B., … & Brouwer, F. (2018). Multi-stakeholder development of a serious game to explore the water-energy-food-land-climate nexus: The SIM4NEXUS approach. Water10(2), 139. doi:

Terrapon-Pfaff, J., Ortiz, W., Dienst, C., & Gröne, M. C. (2018). Energizing the WEF nexus to enhance sustainable development at the local level. Journal of environmental management, 223, 409-416. doi:

Liu, J., Yang, H., Cudennec, C., Gain, A. K., Hoff, H., Lawford, R., … & Zheng, C. (2017). Challenges in operationalizing the water–energy–food nexus. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 62(11), 1714-1720. doi:

Ololade, O. O., Esterhuyse, S., & Levine, A. D. (2017). The water-energy-food nexus from a South African perspective. Water-Energy-Food Nexus: Principles and Practices, 229, 129.

Weitz, N., Strambo, C., Kemp-Benedict, E., & Nilsson, M. (2017). Closing the governance gaps in the water-energy-food nexus: Insights from integrative governance. Global Environmental Change, 45, 165-173. doi:

Wichelns, D. (2017). The water-energy-food nexus: is the increasing attention warranted, from either a research or policy perspective?. Environmental Science & Policy, 69, 113-123. doi:

Rasul, G., & Sharma, B. (2016). The nexus approach to water–energy–food security: an option for adaptation to climate change. Climate Policy, 16(6), 682-702. doi:

Tevar, A. D., Aelion, H. M., Stang, M. A., & Mendlovic, J. (2016). The need for universal metrics in the energy-water-food nexus. Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences, 6(1), 225-230. doi:

Bhattacharyya, S., Bugatti, M. N., & Bauer, M. H. (2015). A bottom-up approach to the nexus of energy, food and water security in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) region. Nexus Network Think Piece Series, 215

Charnley, F., Walker, D., & Kuzmina, K. (2015). Fast-Moving Circular Goods 2025. The Nexus Network: Brighton, UK

Dahlmann, F. (2015). Dahlmann, F. Integrating Impact Investment and Nexus Thinking–Opportunities and challenges.

Endo, A., Burnett, K., Orencio, P. M., Kumazawa, T., Wada, C. A., Ishii, A., … & Taniguchi, M. (2015). Methods of the water-energy-food nexus. Water, 7(10), 5806-5830. doi:

King, C., & Jaafar, H. (2015). Rapid assessment of the water–energy–food–climate nexus in six selected basins of North Africa and West Asia undergoing transitions and scarcity threats. International journal of water resources development, 31(3), 343-359. doi:

Leck, H., Conway, D., Bradshaw, M., & Rees, J. (2015). Tracing the water–energy–food nexus: Description, theory and practice. Geography Compass, 9(8), 445-460. doi:

Ozturk, I. (2015). Sustainability in the food-energy-water nexus: Evidence from BRICS (Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China, and South Africa) countries. Energy, 93, 999-1010. doi: